Audio interface sampling rate/frequency defines the number of samples per unit of time taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. Sampling rate determines the quality of a digital recording.
An omni polar pattern captures audio from every direction. It is particularly useful when the audio source is moving around, or if you wish to capture the audio from a wide sound source such as a group of people.
A hyper-cardioid or super-cardioid pattern is a narrower version of the cardioid pattern. It captures audio in front of the microphone at a narrow angle and is particularly useful when you wish to record a single audio source in a loud environment.
When a digital signal is converted to an analog one (for example when playing audio through speakers or headphones), a certain amount of noise is carried in the signal. A higher SNR means that there is less noise and the audio quality is better.
We consider a lower weight better because lighter devices are more comfortable to carry. A lower weight is also an advantage for home appliances, as it makes transportation easier, and for many other types of products.